2nd Dan Patterns

Kwang Gae (39 Moves)
Kwang Gae is named after the Kwang Gae T'o Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the "lost territories" including the greater part of Manchuria. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 AD, the year he ascended the throne. The diagram represents the expansion and recovery of the lost territories.

Additional Notes
Kwang Gae was the posthumous title of King Tamdok, meaning "broad enlarger of territory". He was born in the year 375, ascended the throne in 391 and reigned until his death in 413 AD. During his reign, Kwang Gae extended the Koguryo kingdom to cover two thirds of the peninsular and most of Manchuria, as far as the Sungari river. On ascending the throne at the age of 19, Kwang Gae occupied the Liaodong Province of China (now the modern day Jilin area). During his reign he also increased the territory of Koguryo by taking land from Paekche in the Han basin area.
His son erected a 24-foot high column next to his tomb carved with 18000 Chinese characters, the year following his death, which recorded his exploits. According to the record, Kwang Gae conquered 64 Castles and over 1400 villages.

Po Eun (36 Moves)
Po Eun is the pseudonym of the loyal subject Chong Mong-Chu, 14th Century, who was a famous poet and whose poem "I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times" is taught to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty.
Additional Notes
Chong Mong-Chu (1337 - 1392) was also employed by the royal court to carry out many diplomatic missions. These included building relationships with the newly founded Ming Dynasty in China. He also travelled to Japan to negotiate the release of Korean prisoners taken by the Japanese pirates.
He admired Yi Song Gae but eventually declared his loyalty to the Koryo royal house. For this reason he was assassinated by agents of the Yi household at Songjuk-kyo ("Good Morning Bridge") in Kaesong in 1392.
During the early part of the 16th century Po Eun was admitted to the national shrine and is known as one of the country's greatest loyalists. Th brush name of Chong Mong-Chu means "Recluse of the vegetable plot".
The poem credited to Po Eun reads:
Even if, I may die, die a hundred times, even if my skeleton may become dust and dirt, and whether my spirit may be there or not, my single-hearted loyalty to the lord will not change.

Ge Baek (44 Moves)
The pattern is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Paekche Dynasty (circa. 660 AD). The diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline.

Additional Notes
In 660 AD General Gae Baek organised an army of soldiers of the highest morals and courage, in defence of Paekche when the combined forces of Silla and the Chinese Tang Dynasty invaded under the leadership of General Kim Yoo Sin.
Before leaving for battle, Ge Baek had his wife and children put to death. This extreme act was to demonstrate his own willingness to die for his country and to save his family from suffering at the hands of the enemy.
Gae Baek selected a force of 5000 warriors who volunteered to fight to the death and led his troops into battle on the Hwang-sang Plains, knowing that there was no hope of survival against the superior numbers of the opposing forces.  Initially, Gae Baek defeated his enemies and drove them back four times in the battle, but his troops exhausted, on the fifth encounter he was defeated and was killed in the fighting.
Thus, the Paekche Dynasty was destroyed after 678 years of rule, but the name of General Ge Baek was forever recognised for his bravery and loyalty to his country.
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